Metabasis N. 18
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Réalité et représentation 2

Réalité et représentation 2

Novembre 2014 - An IX - Numéro 18

Réflexions politiques

Civiltà e conflitto come forme di rappresentazione della realtà

Paolo Bellini

DOI: 10.7413/18281567038

Fin dal 1993, data in cui fu pubblicato negli Stati Uniti il celebre articolo di Samuel P. Huntington sullo scontro di civiltà, cui seguì una monografia sul medesimo argomento, il concetto di civiltà occupa stabilmente la scena del dibattito politico internazionale. Come ci ricorda lo stesso Huntington la definizione di tale concetto appare problematica ed è stato oggetto di molteplici riflessioni fin dal XIX secolo.


Following the publication of the well-known work by Huntington The clash of Civilization, the idea of a clash between civilizations has established itself at a global level, also supported by the recent bloody events that have afflicted the political scene. This brief paper intends to offer an interpretation of the concepts of civilization and conflict as forms of representation of reality.

La revoca degli eletti (recall) nel mondo anglosassone: case studies a confronto

Davide Gianluca Bianchi

DOI: 10.7413/18281567039

Il Recall è la possibilità, riconosciuta ai cittadini, di revocare gli eletti a cariche pubbliche prima della scandenza naturale del mandato, attraverso il ricorso a metodi di democrazia diretta. L’istituto tocca da vicino, di conseguenza, la teoria della rappresentanza politica, il cui interesse è crescente all’interno della comunità scientifica.


The term Recall indicates an Anglo-Saxon legal rule which allows the electors to revoke the mandate of an elected official, by means of a popular petition, before the natural expiration of his/her representative mandate. Created firstly in California, at the beginning of the nineteen century, said institution was later extended to other states of the Union. Recently, it became once again the focus of particular attention following the revocation by a Recall Election in 2003 of the democratic governor of California, whose post was later occupied by Arnold Shwarzenneger. On the proposal of Liberal-democrat party, in United Kingdom 2012 saw the beginning of the parliamentary procedure proposing the bill aimed at introducing the revocation of the elected members of Westminster and the European Parliament, and all mayors directly elected by the citizens. Contemporary Recall is a by-product of the changes in political representation, which are giving birth to an unprecedented type of democracy: the “democracy of the public” (B. Manin).

Les fondements de la critique sociale : normes alternatives et raisonnements hypothetiques

Caroline Guibet Lafaye

DOI: 10.7413/18281567045

La réflexivité critique n’est pas l’apanage des sciences sociales. La mise au jour de la pluralité des formes prises par la critique aujourd’hui suppose de tenir compte, non seulement des théories critiques – sociologiques et philosophiques –, mais également des compétences et de la capacité critiques des personnes dont on qualifie le point de vue de « naïf », d’« ordinaire » ou de « commun » par opposition à ces prises de positions théoriques ou à la rationalité scientifique.


Better than national statistical surveys, qualitative studies and face-to-face interviews are appropriated to grasp representations of social world and reasonings about the latter. We will refer to the survey Perception des inégalités et sentiments de justice (Perception of Inequalities and feelings of Justice) (2010-2011) to analyze the normative framework used by lay people to express critical judgments about injustices in France. First, we will study an original interpretation of the norm of deserve, i.e. the social utility. Then we will consider the empirical uses of hypothetical reasonings in social critics of the French society and its inequalities. Finally, we will envisage more widely the modalities in which critical reasonings are expressed in these interviews.

Genussstreben: zwischen kollektivem Symptom und kapitalistischer Ideologie

Cornelia Stefan

DOI: 10.7413/18281567049

Im Folgenden soll ausgeführt werden, inwiefern das Genussstreben innerhalb unserer Gesellschaft die Funktion eines Abwehrmechanismus inne hat und damit symptomatisch für gesellschaftliche Probleme steht, die sich erst bei genauerem Hinsehen zeigen.


Today’s society is permeated by the pursuit of pleasure. What seems at first glance like a natural desire of every human being, shows on closer analysis that it is a psychic symptom of the postmodern society, which does not adequately meet the human needs as well as it perpetuates and stabilizes the ideological structure of the capitalist economic system. This is an attempt to show with psychoanalytic categories how it possibly works.

Scomparsa del reale e agonia del potere in Jean Baudrillard

Gianluca Vagnarelli

DOI: 10.7413/18281567050

Postulando una rivisitazione della nozione di soggetto, quello che Badiou ha definito il «momento filosofico francese» si è caratterizzato per il sostegno ad un’idea della soggettività fortemente legata al corpo e alla vita, meno ristretta nelle maglie della coscienza e più “gettata” nel vissuto esperienziale.


From Baudrillard's thesis of the disappearance of reality, and the author's analysis of the terrorism’s phenomenon, the article explores the concept of the power, particularly the distinction between the concepts of domination and hegemony as central categories to understand the questioning of the traditional power’s paradigm and to re-thinking emancipation.

Horizons philosophiques

La metáfora

Juan Canseco

DOI: 10.7413/18281567041

El fenómeno de la metáfora es mucho más común de lo que generalmente admiten los filósofos, y plantea dos importantes preguntas: ¿en qué consiste el “significado metafórico”? Y ¿cómo hacen los escuchas para captar con tanta facilidad el sentido metafórico de las expresiones?


The phenomenon of metaphor is more prevalent than generally admitted by philosophers, and it raises two main questions: “what is metaphorical meaning”? And how do hearers grasp metaphorical meaning? Theorists have thought that metaphor is a matter of bringing out similarities between things or states of affairs. Davidson argues that the stimulation of comparisons is causal. The Naive Simile Theory says that metaphors abbreviate literal comparisons. For the Figurative Simile Theory, metaphors are short for similes themselves taken figuratively. Searle uses Gricean apparatus to explain metaphorical meaning as speaker meaning. A further theory of metaphor is based on the phenomenon of single words’ analogical differentiation into hosts of distinct but related meanings.

Nuovo realismo: oggetti sparsi tra filosofia e scienza

Marina Guerrisi

DOI: 10.7413/18281567044

La disputa sul realismo filosofico non è affatto questione nuova. Il rapporto tra nominalismo e realismo sorge in Occidente in seno alla Scolastica medievale e non tanto per definire i parametri della logica modale (possibilità e necessità) con cui pensare il mondo ma conferendo al mondo l’esistenza adeguata alla sua dipendenza da un principio primo. Tensione confluita nel deismo illuminista e nella teodicea di Leibniz che distinguerà le verità necessarie di ragione e verità contingenti.


Who's afraid of New Realism? The relationship between reality and representation is generally related to the history of epistemology and analytic philosophy for which reality is what the statement expresses in form of law. The linguistic drift of philosophical realism calls now for alone objects. Anglo-Saxon contemporary philosophy turns this kind of effect on a speculative complexity. New Realism, Object Oriented Ontology, eco-phenomenology: from religious statements to secularism, the question about the relationship between subject and object is how to give birth to a philosophy without the kingdom of philosophy.

Realtà e rappresentazione ne “Il racconto d’inverno” di Shakespeare

Luca Peloso

DOI: 10.7413/18281567048

Il rapporto problematico tra realtà e rappresentazione sta alla base del nocciolo drammatico de Il racconto d’inverno. Lo si può affrontare da due diverse prospettive: in primo luogo, come rapporto gerarchico, per cui la realtà deriva dalla rappresentazione che se ne fa: in questo senso riguarda il teatro come mezzo, e rinvia allo sguardo che, convocando e ordinando ciò che mette in scena, “crea” al tempo stesso la realtà.


This paper tries to show that Shakespeare’s Winter’s Tale can be seen as the artistic development of a philosophical problem: the relation between reality and representation. By reading the text, we will try to demonstrate that this hypothesis leads us to discover a precise idea of reality, and of the instruments whereby Shakespeare displays it, although not as a thinker but as an artist. In this interpretation, the key role is played by imagination.

Parcours thématiques

Jornada Artes en Cruce (UBA, 2013). Bioy Casares y La invención de Morel – Breves apuntes para su lectura

Hugo Francisco Bauzá

DOI: 10.7413/18281567037

En el entrecruzamiento entre cine y literatura el lingüista y semiólogo Roland Barthes en sus Mitologías da cuenta de que estas artes “se manifiestan como un manantial inagotable de arquetipos imaginales” y es amparado en esa lente jungueana como deseo orientar algunas reflexiones sobre La invención de Morel obra que, para Marcelo Pichon Rivière, constituye “una metáfora del cine”.


According to Jorge Luis Borges The Invention of Morel was a masterpiece of plotting. Set on a mysterious island, Bioy’s novella is a story of suspense and exploration, as well as a wonderfully unlikely romance, in which every detail is at once crystal clear and deeply mysterious. The Invention of Morel should probably be classed as speculative science fiction, and there is definite allusion to H.G. Wells' The Island of Doctor Moreau in Bioy Casares' title, that tells the story of a lovestruck, bewildered man.

La dissolution musicale du « modèle-fenêtre » chez John Cage

Francesco Caddeo

DOI: 10.7413/18281567040

Jean-François Lyotard a théorisé un changement de paradigme dans les arts figuratifs, un changement surtout de la façon de désirer qui se serait développée lors du dix-neuvième siècle, avec comme symptômes possibles la peinture de Cézanne et la psychanalyse freudienne.


This article explores the radical anti-academism of the John Cage’s musical research and its consequences. Actually, his revolutionary experiments dissolve the theater-form as it was built during the Modern era. According to Jean-François Lyotard suggestions, on our point of view we can talk outside the figurative arts about the expiry of the “window-paradigm”, which marks a turning point in the performing arts. Now, following the American composer, together with the traditional musical concert-form’s crisis, we open also an interesting page of the contemporary music, concerning the turns of some typical musical aspects: the prestige represented by the composer, the distinction between noises and sounds, the role assigns to spontaneity inside the composition.

Citare l’altro Giovanni Boccaccio e Il mondo arabo musulmano

Meriem Dhouib

DOI: 10.7413/18281567042

La storicizzazione precisa caratterizzata da esatte indicazioni spaziali nel mondo mediterraneo è un elemento tipico nel novellare di Boccaccio, come d’altronde certi nomi Saladino ad esempio. Infatti la toponomastica e l’onomastica rivelano l’infinita apertura mentale dell’autore medievale che si riferisce al mondo arabo quasi sempre in modo positivo.


This article will briefly review some aspects of the Arab-Islamic culture in some texts of Boccaccio. The analysis will focus on the negative and positive points trying to bring out what is real in the medieval fantasy world of the author.

L’oggetto controfunzionale e il progetto del gesto

Clara Fiorillo

DOI: 10.7413/18281567043

«Pochi di noi sanno che il contorno di un piede non deformato deve essere asimmetrico. È chiaramente più piccolo da un lato. Guardiamolo con attenzione: l’alluce si protende da due a cinque centimetri oltre il quinto dito. Non solo, ma le dita si allargano come un ventaglio. Invece, a guardare la forma della scarpa, ci si aspetterebbe che le dita convergessero sulla punta e non verso il tallone.


The article discusses the problem of the “anti-functionality” of many objects and furniture produced by modern industry and shows some extreme examples of Kitsch objects. The reason for the aesthetical and functional deformation of the objects can be attributed to an abstract conception of the human body and to an idea of  its “closing”. The author analyzes this phenomenon by referring to the thought of Rudofsky, Bachtin, Formaggio and Le Corbusier. Finally, she traces a possible solution to this problem by appealing to the “intelligence of body” (the ancient metis mentioned by Formaggio) and to the ability to designing the human gesture (as Simmel wanted) in order to become able to recognizing the subject in the object (such as Bachelard wanted).

L’apocalisse oltre l’Occidente: realtà e rappresentazioni della fine in Giappone

Stella Marega

DOI: 10.7413/18281567046

L’immagine dell’apocalisse costituisce un riferimento costante nella ricerca di categorie interpretative riguardo ai timori e alle incertezze della post-modernità. Eventi disastrosi e cambiamenti repentini all’interno della società contemporanea sono spesso avvertiti più o meno consapevolmente come “segni della fine”: guerre, attentati terroristici, catastrofi naturali, minacce ambientali, crisi economiche ma altresì decadenza culturale, perdita di senso, dissolvenza dell’umano nei mondi virtuali, nella biotecnologia e nel trans-umanesimo.


Apocalypse is a fundamental category in the interpretation of crisis of post-modern society. On the one hand, it is known the universal character of the apocalyptic symbol, on the other its origin deeply rooted in the Western culture. At the same time, there are few words evoking “the end of the world", as the Japanese names of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - or even Fukushima - scenes of apocalyptic disasters whose memory awakens the darkest nightmares worldwide. Japan has also developed a large number of beliefs and pop-culture products with an apocalyptic background, which does not directly result from an eschatological vision of the world. This paper aims to chart a path through the catastrophic realities and representations of ancient and modern Japan, highlighting the key points in the development of a particular imagination of the end.

Teoria e pratica dei diritti umani: i transessuali e la normativa comunitaria

Franca Menichetti

DOI: 10.7413/18281567047

La Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo si è trovata, sempre più spesso nell’ultimo ventennio, ad affrontare la questione del transessualismo. Nell’emanazione delle proprie sentenze, la Corte ha seguito l’evoluzione scientifica e sociale del concetto di transessualismo. In un primo momento, non vengono riconosciuti ai transessuali i diritti al rispetto della vita privata e alla possibilità di contrarre matrimonio garantiti dagli artt. 8 e 12 della Convenzione europea dei diritti dell’uomo [CEDU].


The philosophy of law cannot only refer to the interpretation of the rule and the interpretation of the relationship, which exists between the rule and the fact from time to time. It must also refer to the judgments of the courts of justice, especially to those supra-national courts whose legitimacy is rooted in Treaties or Covenants and whose decisions are binding for member States as well as for individuals. The judgments I analyze in this paper are not just prophecies: they are mainly an undeniable and unconditional recognition of the rights, which belong to transsexuals as human rights. Without human rights, the philosophy of law is likely to remain in a maze.

Costruire il genere con le parole: il termine escort nel contesto mediatico italiano

Elisa Virgili

DOI: 10.7413/18281567051

Mi propongo in questo articolo di analizzare i termini di “realtà” e “rappresentazione” nell'ambito degli Studi di Genere. Si tratterà quindi di considerare la realtà e la rappresentazione non come sfere distinte o in una visione antitetica in cui la realtà viene temporalmente prima della rappresentazione, ma di indagare la modalità con cui il secondo termine conferisce forma al primo costruendo così i generi.


The scope of this article is to understand the relationship between reality and representation in the field of gender. Starting from a post-structuralist perspective, according to which gender is a result of a construction, I will show how this construction actualizes through language. To do this I will refer to Judith Butler's performativity theory and to empirical data from transcriptions of interviews which contain the word escort, to show how, when used in a different context, it performs the construction of different gender identities.

Metabasis N. 18
édition numérique

peer review

Chaque essai de la revue est évalué par deux referees anonymes et leurs observations envoyées à l’auteur.

Fiche d’évaluation