Metabasis N. 17
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Realtà e rappresentazione

Realtà e rappresentazione

Maggio 2014 - Anno IX - Numero 17

Riflessioni politiche

Populismo, rappresentanza, democrazia: note sull’origine culturale e politica del recall statunitense

Davide Gianluca Bianchi

DOI: 10.7413/18281567026

Il tema della rappresentanza politica, e del carattere problematico che sta assumendo nella società contemporanea, guadagna uno spazio crescente nel dibattito intellettuale che abita il dietro le quinte della scena politica. Cos’è avvenuto e cosa sta avvenendo?

Abstract

The populism gains ground in the contemporary age. Recall is an expression of this culture: the term indicates an anglo-saxon legal rule which allows the electors to revoke the mandate of an elected official, by means of a popular petition, before the natural expiration of his/her representative mandate. Created firstly in California, at a city level, at the beginning of the nineteen century, said institution was later extended to other States of the Union, and also applied to the governors and members of the states’ legislatures. Recently, the Recall became once again the focus of particular attention. The fact that Westminster – historically the first western parliament – debates a Recall bill opens a news season in the way of thinking about political representation. As stated by Bernard Manin, the changes in political representation are, partly, a by-product of the political communication our times and the personalisation of the democratic game, which are giving birth to an unprecedented type of democracy – the “democracy of the public” as it is named by the French political scientist, that clearly alludes to the populism – of which the Recall seems to be an empirical, and far from negligible, demonstration.

Stato, economia e politiche sociali nella crisi europea

Giovanni Luchena

DOI: 10.7413/18281567031

Dinanzi alla crisi economico-finanziaria che ancora non accenna a liberare l’Europa dalla morsa dell’instabilità e dell’incertezza, tra le soluzioni prospettate per disancorare l’economia dalla sua “crescita zero” sembra “risorgere” dalle ceneri della politica la necessità di rimettere in campo lo Stato nazionale quale fattore propulsivo dello sviluppo, redistributore della ricchezza prodotta e detentore delle leve delle politiche sociali.

Abstract

The essay examines the role of the nation-State in the European Union economic system, especially in the present crisis involving most of the European countries. In particular, it analyses the Soziale Marktwirshaft model as established in the European Treaties. The economic sovereignty erosion cut down the chances of State intervention in the domestic economic affairs, thus reducing the social rights protection system. Furthermore, the essay remarks the necessity of revaluing the function of the State, for example, in public services field, not restoring the eighteenth century interventionist State but developing a new liberal humanism.

De la souveraineté nationale à la responsabilité de protéger

Bantchin Napakou

DOI: 10.7413/18281567033

La responsabilité de protéger qui justifie l’intervention de la communauté internationale contredit-elle le principe de la souveraineté nationale ? C’est cette problématique qui conduit à penser la souveraineté étatique en lien avec le concept de responsabilité de protéger. La responsabilité de protéger s’inscrit dans un mouvement de rénovation du droit international humanitaire et consacre en droit international l’émergence de l’individu comme sujet de droit. Avec son apparition dans la sphère juridique internationale, l’État cesse d’être le sujet exclusif du droit international.

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to suggest a new approach of responsibility to protect based on an ethics of res-ponsibility. The interdependence increased between States modified the notion of national sovereignty end redefined certain principles of the international law. If the national sovereignty implies before any a right to self determination, there is another size which connects States to the international community and authorizes a bypassing of the right governing the principle of no intervention. This limit of the sovereignty makes that we passed of a national sovereignty to a sovereignty of responsibility. From this point of view, the responsi-bility to protect returns States responsible for the protection of their own populations against genocides, war crimes, ethnic cleansings and other crimes against humanity. It implies an intervention of the international community when States are not capable or do not have no will to fill their obligations. However, the imple-mentation of the responsibility to protect can invite the instrumentalization when the interests of States are threatened. If the responsibility to protect joins within the framework of the international cooperation, it is advisable to raise the ethical dimension which has base the latter. The ethics of the international cooperation has to base itself on the search for the interests of the whole humanity so that any humanitarian intervention assures its function of human protection in the impartiality, the neutrality and the equity.

Orizzonti filosofici

Il silenzio e l’occidente. I cosiddetti pitagorici

Sergio A. Dagradi

DOI: 10.7413/18281567029

Insegnava Edmund Husserl che le mere scienze di fatto finiscono col creare meri uomini di fatto. Uno dei dati di fatto che caratterizzano alcune visioni in sorvolo di quella che si è soliti individuare come la cultura occidentale, sembrerebbe essere quello della mancanza di un’adeguata considerazione meditativa attorno al silenzio.

Abstract

The aim of the essay is falsify the idea that western tradition doesn’t know a culture of silence. The first exemplification of the presence of this culture in the western philosophy is the Pythagoreanism. In the philosophy of this movement silence plays two important and coordinated rules: to preserve the knowledge of the sect with the secret, and to permit to the members of the sect to improve self-dominion (silence as a technology of Self).

Three ethical hypothesis to think the wrenching perfusions during a dialysis session. Is it an akrasia issue?

Eric Fourneret

DOI: 10.7413/18281567030

In the Nephrology Department's Ethics Consultation Unit (NDECU) of a French hospital, the aim is to analyze the ethical implications of certain complex medical situations. The unit is composed of doctors, nursing staff, social workers, psychiatrists, a chaplain, an attorney and a philosopher. Together, they examine different medical dilemmas, such as the patient who rips out her intravenous (IV) tubes during a dialysis session.

Abstract

When a patient rips out her intravenous tubes during a dialysis session, it is a medical situation very complex and difficult to analyse. The professionals of care want to understand the sense: is it a liberty act? Intentional or not? And if it was an akrasia situation? Doubtless, the explication is not sure. In this article, we propose three hypothesis to help to analyse: irrational and unintentional act; irrational and intentional act; and the forced Choice.

La rappresentazione oltre la realtà. Mimesis e conoscenza teoretica nella teoria poetica aristotelica.

Giangiacomo Vale

DOI: 10.7413/18281567035

La Poetica, opera che Platone non ha mai scritto e che non avrebbe mai potuto scrivere, è significativamente il titolo di quell’opera in cui Aristotele segna forse il massimo distacco dal maestro, benché quest’ultimo non vi sia mai menzionato e la contrapposizione con esso non sia resa esplicita in maniera polemica. Assieme ad un dialogo giovanile andato perduto, Su i poeti, in cui sembra che la polemica antiplatonica fosse ancora più aspra, la Poetica rappresenta infatti un grandissimo sforzo (se lo si legge, e non potrebbe essere altrimenti, alla luce del testo platonico) per fondare ciò che Platone avrebbe sicuramente disapprovato: una teoria della narrazione mimetica.

Abstract

The aristotelian thinking on poetry represents an overcoming of the mimesis as simple reproduction of reality. Aristotle agrees with Plato concerning the essence of art as imitation. However, the two philosophers are on opposite positions in the matter of the evaluation of the epistemological quality of mimesis: while Plato regarded mimesis as the art of producing phantoms of reality, and considers it as doxa, for Aristotle it is an art that enables the representation of the universal. According to Aristotle, mimetic art is a cognitive activity as it permits an almost philosophical understanding of the human events in their possibility and probability: it expresses human acting and interacting in its universality. Giving poetry a cognitive power and considering it as a knowledge, leads to attribute to the “poetical knowledge” a founder nature, and therefore a role of hermeneutical guide and normative knowledge.

Percorsi tematici

La perspective de l’imaginaire tragico-dionysiaque dans le cinema de Ruy Guerra

Olivier Chatriant et Eduardo Portanova Barros

DOI: 10.7413/18281567027

Dans « L’air et les songes », Gaston Bachelard amplifie la sensibilité de notre regard sur l’ordre naturel des choses. Voyons un exemple, assez illustratif (à notre avis), en guise d’introduction aux particularités de cet article. Selon Bachelard, l’image fondamentale d’un vol est contaminée par le concept de l’oiseau. Ce qui veut dire : à la vue d’une volée d’oiseaux, nous percevons l’animal mais pas la singularité du vol.

Abstract

The dreamer who lived the Cinema Novo and whoever lives and postmodernity is the same. A dreamer who fight for poetry and the act of creating. This is a triple struggle against him, him against the Other and the Other against itself. Time and space, as Guerra never tire of saying, is the measure of all things. And it is tuned with the Cosmos - the existential framework - that Guerra films, seeking, in the temporal and spatial dimension of cinema, a meaning. Although, paradoxically, it does so only for himself, Guerra.

Metabasis N. 17
in edizione digitale

peer review

Ogni saggio della rivista viene valutato da due referees in forma anonima e i loro commenti inviati all’autore.

Scheda di valutazione

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