Metabasis N. 16
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Utopia e mito nell’era tecnologica 2

Utopia e mito nell’era tecnologica 2

Novembre 2013 - Anno VIII - Numero 16

Riflessioni politiche

21st-century liberal democracy and its contradictions

Paolo Bellini

DOI: 10.7413/18281567013

The emergence of a planetary, technological and globalised civilisation no doubt represents the beginning of a new phase in human history. Its origin, denomination and dating will probably be talked over in many and diverse academic discussions in the future. As is the case with all significant, pivotal transitions, its interpretation will give rise to conflicting stances.

Abstract

This brief paper intends to highlight the contradictions in which liberal democracy struggles within the process of globalisation, influenced as it is by the new connecting technologies. In particular, the difficult relationship between liberalism and democracy is analysed in light of the latest communitarist theories and new trends that interpret them socially.

Figurazioni sovrane. Bios, ipseità e politica nella filosofia di Jacques Derrida

Pietro Lembo

DOI: 10.7413/18281567019

La filosofia politica è generalmente concepita come rigorosa costruzione di sistemi logici, come edificazione di modelli puri e ideali, volti ad assicurare la convivenza sociale per il tramite di un potere giustificato razionalmente. Allo stesso tempo, tuttavia, non è possibile passare sotto silenzio l’enorme quantità di figurazioni – dalla metafora alla metonimia, dalla tropologia all’analogia, al massiccio ricorso a simboli – che supportano l’argomentazione logica del medesimo discorso.

Abstract

This article applies Jacques Derrida's deconstruction to history of political philosophy, from Plato to Schmitt, in order to show how the classical concept of Politics, beyond traditional rational philosophy, is a discourse of symbols, images, metaphors, analogy and figurations. So, in a confrontation between Derrida and Foucault, we will try to demonstrate the effects of political figuration in relation of life and death.

Persona e Federalismo in Denis de Rougemont

David Mosseri

DOI: 10.7413/18281567020

Il binomio persona-federalismo è un binomio inscindibile questo è quanto sostenevano gli anticonformisti francesi degli anni Trenta col loro pensiero acuto e attualissimo. Ritengo che la «cura della persona» possa essere attuata con pienezza esclusivamente in un sistema politico di tipo federale. Il federalismo, infatti, è l’unico sistema che non abbandona il cittadino a se stesso, è l’unico sistema che – limitando la presenza della burocrazia statale - consente di far sentire il cittadino protagonista, partecipe, di fargli amare la propria città, di condividerne i bisogni e le problematiche.

Abstract

The combination of person and federalism is inseparable: that was supported by nonconformists French thirties with their mind sharp and current. I believe that the “care of the person” can be implemented with fullness only in a federal political system. Federalism, in fact, is the only system that does not abandon the citizen in itself, is the only system - limiting the presence of the state bureaucracy - that feel the citizen as a protagonist, participating, to get him love his city, to share the needs and issues.

Il mito del diritto nell’età tecnologica

Fabrizio Sciacca

DOI: 10.7413/18281567022

Società, diritto e princìpi categorici: questo il campo d’indagine del presente lavoro. Il problema sotteso è quello di cogliere le strutture proprie di ogni società: strutture archetipiche, elementi costanti nella storia della cultura. E se è così, il concetto di diritto come diritto positivo a me sembra oggi un mito, un mito della modernità che nella società odierna, che possiamo anche definire tecnologica, suona come una leggenda di tempi remotissimi.

Abstract

Globalization claims to get rid of the category of modernity in the name of safeguarding the apparently universalizing concepts such as human rights, pacifism and protection of the disadvantaged. The thesis of this work is that the category of modernity allows a kind of universalization through the idea of categorical principles of law, namely those that are conceivable from a human point of view.

La croce, l’asse e la spira. Simbolismo dell’Occidente nell’opera di Denis de Rougemont

Giangiacomo Vale

DOI: 10.7413/18281567024

In un articolo apparso nella prima metà degli anni Trenta nella rivista L’Ordre Nouveau, organo dell’omonimo gruppo di intellettuali riconducibili al personalismo francese di matrice cristiana, Denis de Rougemont scriveva: «Considerare l’uomo come individuo astratto (Principî dell’89) e fondare su tale individuo tutte le istituzioni e la morale, significa misconoscere la natura concreta dell’uomo, che implica il conflitto.

Abstract

The theological concept of “Person” was developed during the trinitarian and christological debates of the 4th and 5th centuries. Afterwards it was employed in order to indicate the “human person”, that is the Western Man. As the divine person, he is the man of contradiction, a tragic and dialectic man, crucifix between freedom and responsibility, immanence and transcendence in a perpetual agony. To the origin of the European culture and ethics there is the idea of contradiction and conflict, symbolized by the cross. The person is the center of a dialectic conflict that informs also the history of Western World, suggesting the image of an infinite dispute between the excesses of individualism and collectivism. The model of person has created an axis of vertical attraction and has changed the course of History that acquires a spiral movement.

Orizzonti filosofici

Alla ricerca del “sé”. Riflessioni sulla “Parabola del carro” delle upanisạd e sul “mito della biga alata” di Platone, da una lettura di Simone Weil

Graziella Di Salvatore

DOI: 10.7413/18281567015

In uno dei Cahiers più emblematici non destinati al pubblico, sui quali soleva annotare anche in sanscrito i suoi pensieri più intimi e profondi, la filosofa francese Simone Weil osservava come, «se si discende in se stessi, si scopre di possedere esattamente ciò che si desidera»

Abstract

The article aims to analyze, through direct study of the texts and philosophical interpretation of Simone Weil, the common ground between the legend of the “Allegory of the carriage”, contained in the Katha Upanishad and “The Myth of the winged chariot” contained in Plato's Phaedrus, in pursuit of a spiritual con-nection between the Hindu and Greek culture in the shared thinking about soul.

Le posthumanisme : un epiphenomene moderne du dualisme

Farid El Moujabber

DOI: 10.7413/18281567016

Depuis les années 1990, le courant posthumaniste se présente comme une nouvelle tendance « scientifique » voulant instaurer l’ère d’une nouvelle espèce post-humaine matérialisée par le couplage de l’homme et de la machine. L’homme du futur est ainsi conçu comme étant un homme immortel doté d’un corps-machine post-biologique. Ce corps servirait de support durable apte à contenir l’essence ou l’esprit de l’être humain qui n’est autre que son intelligence.

Abstract

Nowadays, posthumanism appears as a new “scientific” trend willing to establish a new era of post-human species by the coupling of man and machine. However, beyond the purely scientific and fanciful look of pos-thumanism, a philosophical reading of this doctrine reveals its affiliation to a dualistic philosophical tradition, which re-emerges in a modern version. In this article, we will try to emphasize the involvement of three philosophical concepts in the deployment of the posthuman portrait: The body-prison, the body-machine and the spirit-information. And this, in order to describe how the intermingling of these three concepts and their convergence into a technological pattern contribute to the development of a new conception of the future human beings.

From the bionic eye to google smart glasses. Some philosophical reflections about biotechnologies

Emma Palese

DOI: 10.7413/18281567021

The Italian debate regarding the interaction between human and machine, real and virtual is still limited to traditional topics like abortion, euthanasia and so on. Instead you should go further to consider the most advanced pert of scientific progress: bionics and biotechnology.

Abstract

The advanced scientific progress transforms the identity and life of the contemporary individual ranging from the body applied to the built-in technique. In fact, the bionic eye not only can restore the sight of those who have lost it, but it can also overcome the physical limitations of human nature. Wearable computers, neuromorphic artificial visual sensors are the proposals of the new biotechnologies that keep the individual in balance between the ideas of normality or strengthening of the body. But to what extent can we consider ourselves as cyborgs or mere cyberbodies?

L’essere dell’utopia. L’utopia dell’essere

Teresa Tonchia

DOI: 10.7413/18281567023

L’immaginario politico ha prodotto, in momenti di crisi, delle soluzioni alternative alla realtà del tempo attraverso immagini di Città ordinate, perfette che richiamano e testimoniano il desiderio che spesso si trasforma in nostalgia della mitica età dell’oro o del Paradiso perduto . Tali antecedenti mitici, sotto il profilo di un’analisi simbolica , possono essere fatti risalire al ricordo inconscio e immateriale di un irripetibile ordine cosmico-sacrale : una sorta di harmonia mundi. Il che sembra poter avvicinare l’utopia alla dimensione mitica dell’immagine dell’attesa di un regno nuovo.

Abstract

In times of crisis, the political symbology has always introduced potential solutions to create a better world in which to live. It’s a utopian place that becomes a non-place or ‘the other’ place. It’s a place that engages not only the political, but also the individual dimension. Through the new technologies, belonging and self-identity may become a form of annihilation of the human being. At the same time, it can become a form of redemption and rebirth of the individual through the contact with the Feminine.

Percorsi tematici

Una finestra sulla città. Uno sguardo sull’utopia possibile nella città post-moderna

Daniela Cardone

DOI: 10.7413/18281567014

Il post umanesimo riconosce in una strana e paradossale armonia, un sistema unitario di parti dove sussistono perfezione umana, volontà libera, autonoma e razionale e contemporaneamente molteplici identità in cui essa stessa si riproduce, manifestandosi appunto in differenti forme meccaniche, cibernetiche e irreali. Questo circuito caotico, irrazionale, apparentemente incoerente, tiene insieme anche le vite e i luoghi delle vite, dell’abitare: dalle forme viventi del paesaggio classico alle forme viventi del paesaggio architettonico che propone una simbiosi tra regole del costruire e astrazione formale.

Abstract

Some aspects of posthuman and technological city planning come from the ordered caos of different mechanical, cybernetic and unreal forms. City and genius loci identification are inside space corporeity and atmospheric post – human, but even the imaginary and in-corporeity projection size are human space, the same space that is choosen to live. So the perfect place becomes the impossible place.

Die große Stille: trame liminari e soglie acustiche

Luisella Ferrario

DOI: 10.7413/18281567017

Il silenzio di Die große Stille è assordante. Nel frastuono della contemporaneità, afflitta dall’ossessione dell’horror vacui, il film di Philip Gröning turba e confonde. L’ambiente acustico, restituito alla ricchezza arcana del canto della natura e della preghiera, si libera della presa oggettivante e soggettivante della ragione, per collocarsi nella dimensione liminare. Dimensione nella quale la voracità ordinatrice dell’Io retrocede, frastornata e confusa da un’acustica silente, finalmente libera dalle catene sonore che riempiono la nostra quotidianità, affollata dal bailamme della velocità performativa.

Abstract

This essay aims to reflect on the symbolic meaning of silence, starting from the documentary film Die große Stille, directed by Philip Gröning. Silence is full of noises. We took, for example, the onomatopoeic sounds of nature and its elemental forces. We interpreted the voices of silence taking as a reference the thought of two French philosophers: Gilbert Durand and Gaston Bachelard. In particular, we referred to the Fantastic Transcendental and the Poetics of Rêverie. Furthermore, we examined the archetypal images recalled by sounds of natural elements – in particular Water –, daily hand workings, prayers and liturgical songs of the monks, protagonists of the movie. The use of accents has been deliberately highlighted in words evocating sounds in order to give particular stress to the symbolic and alchemical force released by sonorous landscapes.

Rédemption pour le rédempteur ! Parsifal : Wagner et l’œuvre d’art totale.

Fátima Gutiérrez

DOI: 10.7413/18281567018

Sur la cime d'une très haute montagne, le bourg de Montsalvat s'élève jusqu'aux cieux. Les chemins qui y mènent restent inaccessibles pour le commun des mortels car Titurel le bâtit pour garder, loin du regard avide du profane, le saint calice que le Christ avait partagé avec ses disciples pendant la dernière Cène, le même où José d'Arimathie avait recueilli le sang de ses blessures lorsque, par l’amour de l'humanité et pour son salut, Il se livra au sacrifice. La lance dont Longin se servit pour déchirer le flanc du Sauveur était gardée à côté du calice.

Abstract

In his Parsifal, Richard Wagner is not putting forward his own version of the Gospels, let alone setting up a new Christian liturgy: he avails himself of a lavish array of symbolic devices, mainly of Christian origin, as well as of the legend of the Holy Grail, in order to create what he considers «a genuine work of art », a work of art based on genuine morals, since the corruption of humanity has degraded art. However, art itself must still be the instrument of choice for its own regeneration. This paper tries to place the swan song of the master of Bayreuth in its right context: that of the total artwork.

Sur quelques images revelatrices dans la poesie de Lucian Blaga

Gisèle Vanhese

DOI: 10.7413/18281567025

S’il est bien un poète qui a dévoilé les images premières de la quaternité élémentaire chère à Gaston Bachelard, c’est Lucian Blaga. Comme l’écrivain roumain le dira dans un de ses plus beaux poèmes, le Dieu caché s’est à jamais dissous en une dissémination cosmique: «à jamais je t’ai perdu / dans la terre, le feu, dans l’air et sur les eaux».

Abstract

This essay is based on the methodology of myth criticism in order to deal with the literary treatment of the image in the poetry of Lucian Blaga. The first part demonstrates how Blaga’s thoughts on “revelatory metaphor” within his philosophical œuvre coincide with Gaston Bachelard’s ideas of the image. We demonstrate how they had the merit of associating, by diverse means, the configuration of metaphor, and the image, with that of symbol. In the second part, we analyse, within a Bachelardian perspective, a number of important elementary images linked to the cosmos of water present in Blaga’s work, in particular the well and the sea voyage as the complex of Charon.

Metabasis N. 16
in edizione digitale

peer review

Ogni saggio della rivista viene valutato da due referees in forma anonima e i loro commenti inviati all’autore.

Scheda di valutazione

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