Each essay of this journal is reviewed by two anonymous referees and their comments are sent to the authors .
Scapegoat, politics and power
May 2023 - Year XVIII - Number 35
It is a worrying fact that today a considerable amount of citizens is dissatisfied and disappointed by democracy. This theme is addressed here from an essentially philosophical point of view and tries to support the preferability of the democratic form, even if the criticisms relating to the limits of its historical implementation should not be underestimated. In fact, many choices made by democratic governments seem decidedly questionable, but this must not be attributed to democracy itself, but to the bad use that some do.
Howard’s texts are endowed of a greater philosophical value than the stricty literary one. In them it is implicit a cyclical philosophy of history in which barbarism is the driving force of historical life while civilization is its dissolving phase. Despite the Nietzschean influence, he nonetheless poses authentic issues that deserve an adequate philosophical and symbolic development.
Caroline Guibet Lafaye
Constituted in 1978 and still very active on the international scene, the Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan (PKK) welcomed tens of thousands of militants into its ranks, a large part of whom joined the guerrilla. In order to propose a socio-demographic study of these actors, we carried out a qualitative sociological survey which enabled us to meet 64 of them. What are the paths of engagement and the reasons for involvement in the Kurdish armed struggle over these forty years of existence? How have interactions with the Turkish state influenced the militant trajectories? What were the effects of the PKK’s strategic and ideological changes on these recruits? These are the questions that this article will attempt to elucidate on the basis of the field survey carried out in 2016-2017.
The Tian An Men Square massacre of 4 June 1989 was the violent repression carried out by the armed forces carrying out the order of the oppressive central government to which students and workers demanded the assertion of civil rights. Although the ’89 episode, due to its highly symbolic value, is remembered as the massacre of China, the population took to Tian An Men Square many times during the short century, exhausted by internal civil wars, massive losses during the world wars and rampant corruption in government circles.
Starting from Del Noce’s trans-politica vision of contemporary history, this article argues that Gramsci’s interpretation of Marx’s philosophy of praxis had foreseen main aspects of postmodern ideology. Both postmodern thinking and Gramscism are a way of thinking based on the divinization of immanence just like Marx argued. Therefore, both Gramsci and postmodern ideology have been deeply influencing progressive political culture which is currently hegemonic in the intellectual and academic networks of the West. As a consequence of this fact, Marxism failed on the political level but its historical materialism constitutes the deep grammar of the current system of beliefs of our societies. Nevertheless, the final outcome of the cultural, philosophical and political progressive ideology is nihilism (Del Noce).
Power exists and characterizes politics with its contradictions, conflicts and tragicities. Hannah Arendt, political theorist, philosopher, has worked throughout her life to analyze such a paradigm, as well as to make clear what it is and how humans who inhabit the earth must re-act and not immunize themselves to power by thinking critically in act of birth that constitutes the “miracle” of human beings: their being free. The political philosophy theorized by her and discussed here aims to protect individuals from violence and lies. It reveals a thought that can benefit the welfare of plurality. Constructs a theme that is ultimately part of bioethics as a responsible sense of behave and biopolitics understood dialectically as conciliatory.