Metabasis N. 21
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Frammenti 3

Frammenti 3

Maggio 2016 - Anno XI - Numero 21

Riflessioni politiche

Conflict, tolerance and power legitimation

Paolo Bellini

DOI: 10.7413/18281567075

This brief paper intends to investigate the dynamics lying at the basis of power legitimation within western society by examining the roles of violence and conflict. In particular, those of the sovereign people and the good citizen are analyzed through the ideological, narrative and symbolic mechanisms that determine their image and meanings within the body politic. Throughout history, different forms of power legitimation alternated, which we can ideally include within a linear pattern where they are arranged along an axis at whose extremes are placed the concepts of immanence and transcendence.

Abstract

This brief paper intends to investigate the dynamics lying at the basis of power legitimation within western society by examining the roles of violence and conflict. In particular, those of the sovereign people and the good citizen are analyzed through the ideological, narrative and symbolic mechanisms that determine their image and meanings within the body politic. Throughout history, different forms of power legitimation alternated, which we can ideally include within a linear pattern where they are arranged along an axis at whose extremes are placed the concepts of immanence and transcendence.

Lo scarto fra realtà e rappresentazione. Immagini, società spettacolare e social media

Fabio Ferrara

DOI: 10.7413/18281567078

Sul finire degli anni Sessanta del Novecento Debord scriveva: «Tutta la vita delle società nelle quali predominano le condizioni moderne di produzione si presenta come un’immensa accumulazione di spettacoli. Tutto ciò che era direttamente vissuto si è allontanato in una rappresentazione». Con queste parole, riportate nell’incipit de La società dello spettacolo (1967), il filosofo francese, coglie una delle questioni cardine, a nostro avviso, caratterizzanti l’epoca post-moderna: lo scarto fra realtà e rappresentazione.

Abstract

Our age is characterized by a never seen before production of images in the history of humankind. Starting from this condition, we will lay emphasis on how the effects of this spectacular overexposure are reflected on the human being, who is subjected to a continuous media flow and seems to express a sort of difficulty in distinguishing the fine line between reality and representation. In this sense, it is worth noting the emergence of an intangible dimension of existence which has contributed to this backdrop. This dimension is connected to the technological development and means offered by Internet, in particular to the emergence and the de-velopment of social media.

Interprétations politiques de la causalité terroriste

Caroline Guibet Lafaye

DOI: 10.7413/18281567079

Dans un contexte politique où les sciences sociales sont accusées d’excuser (voir Valls, 9/01/2016), lorsqu’elles cherchent à comprendre la violence politique et la violence d’agents réduits à leur dimension criminelle (voir Codaccioni, 2015), nous avons voulu mettre en évidence les paradigmes explicatifs que le discours politique convoquait, de façon privilégiée, pour rendre compte d’actes meurtriers revendiqués.

Abstract

Until the 2010s, the ideological and political violence was described in France by reference to terrorism. Gradually “terrorism” has given way to “radicalization” though the latter has a larger field of application. Although “terrorism” and “radicalization” refer to different phenomena, their interpretations in the political sphere do not differ genuinely. We proceed to a systematic study of French political discourses from 1980 to 2016 to investigate the reasons they raised to explain the radicalizations. Three main paradigms appear: social determinism, a hypersubjectivation, a tendency to hide reasons. The factors political discourses refer to, either in a subjective approach or in an objective approach, lead to a systematic depoliticization of the radicalization processes and the violence they sometimes cause.

Überlegungen zu Technik und Diskrepanz bei Günther Anders

Natascia Mattucci

DOI: 10.7413/18281567080

Wie allgemein bekannt, war Günther Anders ein Schriftsteller, Philosoph, Essayist und Journalist, der keine Etiketten und Klassifizierungen liebte. Die akademische Welt hat seine Schriften lange als peripher angesehen. Doch sind die Übersetzungen seiner Werke in andere Sprachen (gewiss immer noch langsam) und das Interesse, das Wissenschaftler und Studierende in letzter Zeit ihm gegenüber zeigen, vielleicht das Anzeichen eines Perspektivwandels.

Abstract

Anders’s work can be significant in contemporary political philosophy, as evidenced by his reflections on technique, discrepancy and moral imagination. His critical thinking is beginning to occupy more and more space in the intersection between philosophical and political studies. It is sufficient to think of the technolog-ical and energy risks in the global era and the effects of manipulation of the media. The constant bouncing between reality and thought is central in his writings.

Some philosophical remarks on the encyclical letter Laudato si’

Salvatore Muscolino

DOI: 10.7413/18281567081

In this paper, I aim at interpreting the project of the encyclical as a sort of paradigmatic turn in the way of conceiving Christian faith. At paragraph 49, it is underlined that a “true ecological approach always becomes a social approach” and this implies the need of hearing “both the cry of the earth and the cry of the poor”. In my view, by uniting the two categories of “nature/creation” and “poverty”, the encyclical implicitly builds an ideal bridge between Pope Francis’ paradigmatic turn and that “political turn” invoked by the Catholic theologian J. B. Metz from the end of the sixties through the proposal of a “New Political Theology”. Indeed, the excesses of the neo-liberal paradigm and the perverse effects of a certain organization of global market pushes Christianity to act by involving all social, cultural and religious actors, in order to fight against all the forms of suffering and dehumanization of contemporary society. I’m also interested in underlining some weak aspects of Pope’s ecological approach.

Abstract

In this paper, I aim at interpreting the project of the encyclical as a sort of paradigmatic turn in the way of conceiving Christian faith. At paragraph 49, it is underlined that a “true ecological approach always becomes a social approach” and this implies the need of hearing “both the cry of the earth and the cry of the poor”. In my view, by uniting the two categories of “nature/creation” and “poverty”, the encyclical implicitly builds an ideal bridge between Pope Francis’ paradigmatic turn and that “political turn” invoked by the Catholic theologian J. B. Metz from the end of the sixties through the proposal of a “New Political Theology”. Indeed, the excesses of the neo-liberal paradigm and the perverse effects of a certain organization of global market pushes Christianity to act by involving all social, cultural and religious actors, in order to fight against all the forms of suffering and dehumanization of contemporary society. I’m also interested in underlining some weak aspects of Pope’s ecological approach.

Franzen e lo spettro dell'impurità nella società contemporanea.
Una lettura di Purity attraverso Gramsci, Shakespeare, Mary Douglas.

Luca Peloso

DOI: 10.7413/18281567082

Perché un saggio su Jonathan Franzen? A molti risulterà discutibile l'idea che questo chiacchierato scrittore abbia qualcosa da dire sulla società contemporanea. Ma per l'appunto, Franzen è un autore più chiacchierato che studiato, e la diffidenza nei suoi confronti – piuttosto diffusa – deriva da pregiudizi che vanno sradicati.

Abstract

Jonathan Franzen is one of the greatest living writers. I propose to read his most recent book, the novel Purity, in two ways: 1) as a tale about the clash between old and new generation, by using Shakespeare's Hamlet and Gramsci's Lettere dal carcere in order to point out the challenges posed by novel; 2) as a dialogue with/an answer to Purity and danger by anthropologist Mary Douglas, since Franzen studies the couple purity-impurity as a system – or an Ideology – through which Western Contemporary Society protects and defines itself. With this analysis I also intend to show some points of intersection between Philosophy and Literature.

Dal dottor Semmelweis al Professor Y. L.-F. Céline e l’uomo moderno, tra letteratura e antipolitica.

Giangiacomo Vale

DOI: 10.7413/18281567083

Louis-Ferdinand Auguste Destouches, in arte Céline, nasce nel 1894 a Courbevoie, nei sobborghi industriali di Parigi, in una famiglia piccolo borghese. Ancora bambino si trasferisce nel centro della capitale, nello squallido e maleodorante Passage Choiseul, nel 2° arrondissement.

Abstract

This paper follows a literary and existential journey through the works of Louis-Ferdinand Céline, from his first novel, which is also his graduation thesis in medicine, The Life and Work of Semmelweis (1924), to one of his last, Conversations with Professor Y (1955), by way of his most famous work, Journey to the End of the Night (1932). The paper examines some frequent topics in the literary work of Céline, in particular his aesthetic and antipolitical revolt against the decadence of the modern world. This revolt supersedes every rebellion, every ideology, every hope, but also every form of desperation or satisfaction.

Orizzonti filosofici

Acerca de Dios y su omnipotencia

Juan Canseco

DOI: 10.7413/18281567076

Existe una serie de argumentos a favor de la tesis del ateo (el argumento a partir de la escala es el más importante de esta familia de argumentos), que dan por cierta la coherencia interna del concepto de Dios, mismo que viene presentado de forma quasi-científica (pero sobrenatural) como parte de una hipótesis que habría de explicar una gama de fenómenos que de otra forma resultarían inexplicables (por qué existe un universo, por qué el universo demuestra el orden que lo caracteriza, por qué aparentemente se producen en distintas ocasiones específicas violaciones de las leyes de la naturaleza, por qué algunas personas refieren haber tenido una “experiencia religiosa”, etc.).

Abstract

Several arguments against theism (the argument from scale, the argument from evil) take for granted that the concept of God is internally coherent. But a range of other considerations of logical nature argue that God is not even a possible being. Quite aside from whether his existence would be compatible with anything else, such as modern science or the existence of evil, it is not even compatible with itself. The claim is that the concept of God is, in a wide sense of the term, self-contradictory, just as the concept of a highest prime number is self-contradictory. In neither case is the self-contradiction obvious, but in both cases, claims the atheist, there is a hidden contradiction.

La memoria come ambito privilegiato della coscienza del sé

Emanuela Civilini

DOI: 10.7413/18281567077

Oggi ci sono nuovi e interessanti motivi per rileggere il complesso pensiero di Henri Bergson; assistiamo, infatti, a livello sociale, a un rinnovato interesse per un problema di confine che ha sia valenze filosofiche che valenze scientifiche ovvero quello della relazione tra la mente, preposta all’attività noetica dell’io, e il cervello, inteso come organo fisico preposto all’attività fisiologica.

Abstract

Today there are new and interesting reasons to read again the complex philosophical thought of Henri Berg-son; socially we see, in fact, a renewed interest for a border problem that has both philosophical values that scientific values concerns the link between the mind, like ego responsible to noetic activity, and the brain, understood as a physical organ responsible for physiological activity.

Metabasis N. 21
in edizione digitale

peer review

Ogni saggio della rivista viene valutato da due referees in forma anonima e i loro commenti inviati all’autore.

Scheda di valutazione

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